Bee venom is produced by the workers bees and queen bee. Bee venom is produced by the two glands and is stored in bladder. In the victims body Bee venom is injected by the sting. Bees using venom to defend the hive. During venom injection there are volatile substances that motivate other bees like pheromone to attack the intruder.
When the young bee is only one day old there is no bee venom, but second day already has it in small amount. How much of venom bees have really depends on season and amount of honey and pollen in hive and in the nature. Bees don’t have so much venom during winter and in early spring.
Lethal dose for the healthy non alergic adult is 2,8mg per one kg of body weight. So it is necessary around 600 bees to sting a person for lethal dose. But it really depends on individuals conditions about, his alergic reactions or injected body location. The most dangerous stings are in head and neck.
Bee venom is thick liquid, bitter and sour taste, with specific odor. After drying process Bee venom is like a white powder.
Bee venom ingredients are:
– Active amines
– glucose and fructose
– amino acids
– Volatile substances
Bee venom is by its influence on human body very similar to snake venom, but the bee sting has considerably less. It is soluble in water and acids, but not soluble in alcohol. Of dry matter content is between 35 and 40%. It is temperature resistant and can be kept in good conditions and up to 5 years without losing toxic and medicinal properties. Bee venom contains no microorganisms.
Applications in Medicine
Bee venom beekeepers began to collect in 60s of the 20th century. The bee venom is collected using technology of electric shocks on the bees entering the hive. This is a long and tedious job if we consider that the bee is about 0.3 – 0.5 mg of toxin that has yet to undergo the process of drying. Bee venom is a sought-respected in the medical and pharmaceutical industry as an ingredient in medicines to treat arthritis, chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, etc. .. as well as in veterinary medicine in the treatment of horses and dogs.