Honey bee 

Introduction 

The body of bees is divided into three parts: head, thorax and abdomen . Their body is covered with “skin” and threads that protect them from the cold, dirt and bees using it for collecting pollen and propolis. The bee has three pairs of legs, the last pair of legs is used to collect pollen and propolis, and the front pair of legs mainly for cleaning and hygiene. The abdomen part consists of the digestive, circulatory , respiratory, and a main part of the nervous system. Bees have two pairs of wings. Bees can carry the polen, propolis or nectar 20 times greater than its own weight but when they fly 75% of weight.

Bee Anatomy

Description of body parts

The skin – consists of 13 rings . The largest part is covered with dense threads. The “skin” is composed of three layers, the outer layer, middle layer and inner layer.

The head of bees – has two complex and three simple eyes, two antennae and mouth. Simple eyes with only one lens does not create a picture but notice the direction and intensity of the light . Compound eyes have a total field of 360 degrees, on the other hand bees have a much lower visual acuity, for example to 80x less than a humans. Bees have the ability to perceive movement, which had 200 pulses per second, while a humans 24 pulses per second observed it as a moving image. This is the reason why the bees do not like sudden moves of the beekeepers, while slow moves they don’t even register. Bees can see ultraviolet light, as well as various shades of white. Bees can determine the position of the sun when it’s cloudy . Bees have an excellent sense of smell and make difference of about 40 different scented substances .

Thorax – consists of four parts, which together make a thorax. It is a muscular structure that allows the bees are good fliers . Abdomen bee – made up of six separate parts. Most of the body’s organs are located in the abdomen. Wings – bees have two pairs of wings , which can cross over each other . The front wing is slightly longer than the rear wing . The bees can fly up to 60 km/h and carry loads up to 75mg.

Legs – bees have three pairs of legs . On the last legs bee collects pollen and propolis . The purpose of the legs, in addition to movement , is: honeycomb construction, hygiene, catching other bees, undertaking of dead bees …

Glands to produce wax – are on the lower part of the abdomen , the honeycomb has been build only by the young bees and they need water for doing it.

Stings – serves to defend the bees. Bees inject bee venom by stings to victim’s body.

Digestive system – average is about 35mm long . It consists of the front part where the mouth is; and of the central part where also are the remains of undigested food . In Malpighi tubes have the task to collect undigested food , salt and uric acid , and throw them out of the body, altough winter bees have the ability to delay it for longer period . Honey stomach – a special organ for storage of nectar .

Respiratory system – breathing is distributed oxygen and unload carbon dioxide and the excess water . Hemolymph do not like blood carries oxygen , but oxygen breathing system leads to all parts of the body .

Respiratory system – breathing is distributing oxygen and clean carbon dioxide and the excess of the water. Hemolymph can’t carries oxygen as human blood does, but breathing system brings oxygen to all parts of the body.

Air bags – bees have three pairs of air bags in the head , four pairs in the chest and two bags in the abdomen. Air bags are very important for maintaining the flight of bees.

The nervous system – consisting of neurons , and is divided into the central nervous system , peripheral and sympathetic

The circulatory system of bees – bees don’t have vessels (except one of the aorta), in the way that mammals have. Hemolymph is place everywhere inside of bees’ body. Reproductive organs – the honeybee has sexual organs, but since it is not mating can lie only drone brood and only if the bee queen is not present in the hive. The bee queen controls by the pheromone the reproductive behavior of honey bees.

In addition to good vision and sense of smell, the bee has a sense of touch and taste, for example, bees use a sugar-water liquid of 10-70 % of sugar, while those of less than 10 % do not consume. Sound signals bees receiving through the air or through the surface on which they stand .

The bee has a perfect sense of direction. They are oriented ty the location of the sun, pheromones inside of hive and by the language of bees. During his life of bees going through the various stages of embryonic growth, and through the various stages of life and the role of adult bees. It is necessary to distinguish between the summer and winter bees, winter bees live much longer 5-6 months, until the summer bees to 45 days. Winter bee has a much smaller and limited, but important role, to keep community alive to the next spring.

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